THE LAW OF NOAH: ONE WORLD RELIGION?
Ecumenism is a phase in the battle between the Church and the Synagogue of Satan (Apoc. 2:9). The plan revealed in 1884 by Elijah Benamozegh, the cabalist rabbi from Livorno, Italy, was a new assault on the Church–not to wipe Catholicism off the face of the earth, but to "transform" it and bring it into accordance with the Noaic Law. Was the Second Vatican Council a step to implement this plan? The importance of this article is understood by reading the address of Bishop Joseph Doré to a Jewish lodge of B'nai B'rith, titled "The Church and the Synagogue" (see this issue of The Angelus, pp. 69-73).
I will put enmity between thee and the woman; between thy seed and her seed. (Gen. 3:15)
On October 28, 1998, at the discerning of the prize Nostra Aetate,3granted jointly by Samuel Pisar and the Center for Understanding Between Jews and Christians of Sacred Heart University of Fairfield, Connecticut, at the Sutton Place Synagogue in New York, Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, Archbishop of Paris, made a declaration whose title was full of promise Jews and Christians, Tomorrow.4 This declaration, whose importance was perfectly evident to contemporaries, still merits our attention today. Before the leaders of the Jewish world, the Cardinal presented an historical tableau of the relations between Christians and Jews and went on to make an in-depth analysis of the work of salvation of mankind. We might have hoped for a reminder of the Catholic teaching on the history of salvation. A few citations from the Cardinal will permit the reader to form an idea of the gravity of the subject matter and will serve as introduction to the present study.
As we are nearing the third millennium of the Christian era, a new age has begun in the history of mankind....A page is being turned in the history of humankind....In Christian-Jewish relationships, Christians have opened their eyes and ears to the Jewish pain and wounds. They accept to be held responsible and agree to bear that burden without rejecting it on others.5
For what fault should Christians be bearing the burden? The Cardinal takes it upon himself to respond in the chapter entitled "Election and Jealousy," a chapter that would deserve to be cited in full, so twisted is its presentation of the history of salvation. The election is that of the unfaithful Jewish nation, an election that has never been revoked, with the "setting aside of the elect" in "reserve." The jealousy is that of Christians:
Christian jealousy of Israel very quickly took the shape of a claim for a legacy: just get rid of the other, who is so close and yet so different!...The pagans who had become Christians gained access to the Holy Scriptures and to the Jewish festivals. But human–only too human–envy prompted them to marginalize or throw out the Jews [meaning their Judaism, their practices, their rites, and their beliefs]6 ....But [the Cardinal adds] the number and might of the pagans who had entered the Church of the Messiah upset the inverted order of the dispensation of salvation. This movement tended to deprive the Jewish existence of its concrete, carnal, historical contents, and to consider the life of the Church until recent history, as the final achievement of Jewish hope and life.7 This was how the theory of substitution was developed.8
Cardinal Lustiger goes on to try to prove that the Jews were thus despoiled by Christians of their role as the chosen people, the priestly people who are to bring salvation to mankind:
...When Constantine granted the Christians a tolerance that was tantamount to a recognition of Christianity in the life of the State and eventually led to make it the religion of the Empire, the Jews were brutally rejected. This was a simplistic and unrefined way of denying redemption the time and childbirth labor that it requires....9
The mythology10 of the substitution of the Christian people for the Jewish people fostered a secret, inextinguishable envy and legitimated the captation [i.e., usurpation–Ed.] of Israel's legacy, of which countless examples could be offered. (I will mention only one: the French kings' claim to descend from David. This led their advisors to have them crowned according to the ritual designed for the kings of Israel, as reported in the Bible and as had already been done in Byzantium.)11
At the end of his historical tableau and his very particular theology of history, the Cardinal reassures his audience. Times have changed: the time of contempt has passed, giving way to the time of respect.12 The heritage will soon be rendered to its legitimate owner, the Jewish people, the true Israel, once again become the priestly people13 who will bring authentic salvation to the nations, peace to the Gentiles, and the unity of which the world is so much in need. His discourse concludes with this word of hope:
This new awareness was condensed for the Catholic Church in the Second Vatican Council's Nostra Aetate Declaration. In the last 30 years it has given way to many comments, especially on the initiatives of Pope John Paul II. However, this new understanding still has to remodel in depth the ideas of many peoples who belong to the Christian sphere but whose hearts have not yet been purified by the Spirit of the Messiah. Historical experience shows us that lasting "patience" and many educational efforts are required to "appropriate one's soul" (Lk. 21:19).
In summary: The "appropriation" of the heritage by jealous Christians who supplanted the Jews in their role as the people of God and instrument of the salvation of the world. –The recognition and confession of this fault in the 20th century after a new awareness that came with Vatican II. –The heritage must come back to the dispossessed Jews. –It will be necessary to do reparation for the fault committed and to allow the necessary time for the Christian spirit to change. –The march of history is irreversible.
More recently–in 2002–Cardinal Lustiger spoke before the European Jewish Congress,15 before the World Jewish Congress16 and before the American Jewish Committee17 to expose his "reflection on the election and the vocation of Israel and its relations with the nations." His Judeo-Christian syncretism18seems to please the elites of Judaism without the Catholic world's raising the least objection to the heterodoxy of his thought.
How has a cardinal, at the end of the 20th century, managed to rewrite the history of salvation to the point of denying the entire redemptive work of Jesus Christ, continued by His Church? How was the spiritual subversion of the 20th century carried off?
Was it at the Second Vatican Council, as Cardinal Lustiger would have us believe? If the Church is no longer the verus Israel, what does she become in this new theology of history? It is to these delicate questions that this study will attempt to give a response.
Historical Attempts to "Recover the Heritage"
Originally chosen by God for a magnificent mission–to give mankind the Savior–the Jewish people were the hope and honor of humanity during the two millennia before Jesus Christ. They preserved the divine promises, bore witness to the true God in the midst of pagan idolatry, kept intact here below the faith, the truth, and the pure and substantial worship of the Father, as well as the expectation of the Savior of the world. Until the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Jews were, in all truth, "the people of God"; in choosing to be born of the race of Abraham, Christ Jesus crowned and consecrated it with His own sanctity.
However, Calvary separated the chosen people in two: on the one hand, the disciples, the Apostles, and the first Christians who recognized in Jesus crucified the Messias come to accomplish the Law and the Prophets, and who adhered fully to His message, His spirit, and His Mystical Body: the Church. On the other hand fall those on whose head, and by whose own desire, fell the blood of the Just,19placing them under a malediction that will endure as long as their rebellion.
For two millennia, those who rejected the Law of Moses for the Talmud have undertaken to thwart the work of Redemption. They have participated in all of the rebellions of the human spirit against God and against His Christ, whom they have not wished to recognize, and against His Church, which they consider a "usurper." Even as she protected herself against them, and even as she reminds the world of the horror of deicide, the Church has never ceased to pursue them with her charity, in order to lead them back to the fold, to the source of grace: to Calvary where flowed the redeeming Blood. This charity even pushed the Church to protect them, rejected as they often were by Christian nations. The true converts among them have countless times born witness to the charity of the Church in their regard.21
However, the workers of iniquity were little moved by this mildness on the part of the Roman pontiffs. In each century, the attacks against the Church and against Catholic civilization have redoubled. Joshua Jehouda, author of a work entitled Anti-Semitism: A Mirror of the World22 describing those of the modern and contemporary ages: "Three attempts on the part of the Jewish world have aimed to purify the Christian consciousness of its miasmas of hate; three breaches effected in the out-dated fortress of Christian obscurantism; three steps in the effort to destroy the Catholic dogmatic." These three steps were the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Revolution: "The Renaissance, the Reformation and the Revolution constitute three attempts to rectify Christian thought in bringing it into harmony with the progressive development of reason and science." The author specifies: "In spite of these three attempts to purify Christian dogma of its anti-Semitism, Christian theology has not yet cast off its contempt." That is why "[i]n the nineteenth century two new attempts were made to purify the mentality of the Christian world, one by Marx and the other by Nietzsche."23
The Jewish thinker deplores the partial failure of these two new attempts. The fortress of Catholicism continued to hold out strong. Only with the post-World War II era would the most subtle and destructive attack be launched against the Roman Catholic Church: to change Catholic theology through the work of churchmen themselves. It was "a revolution in tiara and cope," initiated in the 19th century by the Carbonari, pursued by the modernists in the 20th century, and finally triumphant at Vatican II.
Vatican II: The Open Door
After World War II, Jewish organizations sought to address the Christian world on the necessity of revising the teaching of the Church on Judaism.
In 1946, the Oxford Conference, under the auspices of British and American Jewish organizations, reunited Catholics and Protestants for a debate concerning problems encountered since the war: a simple first contact. A second international conference was organized at Seelisberg, in Switzerland, primarily concerned with the problem of anti-Semitism. To a large degree, this was a gathering of experts.24 Among the 60 or so participants figured Fr.Journet.25 Jacques Maritain, for his part, was unable to participate at the conference; however, he sent a warm message of encouragement.26 Jules Isaac became the "key player" at this gathering. The conference culminated in a manifesto entitled The Ten Points of Seelisberg. Of these ten points, we can retain the following:
5) Avoid distorting or misrepresenting biblical or post-biblical Judaism with the object of extolling Christianity.
6) Avoid using the word "Jews" in the exclusive sense of the enemies of Jesus, and the words "the enemies of Jesus" to designate the whole Jewish people.
7) Avoid presenting the Passion in such a way as to bring the odium of the killing of Jesus upon all Jews or upon Jews alone...
"The archives of Jules Isaac bear witness to the tireless activity of our author." The words are of Andre Kaspi, who recently published a biography outlining the personality of Jules Isaac.28 In it he confirms a number of known facts and reveals a few others. One of the most important contributions of Jules Isaac was his book Jesus and Israel, which sought to prove that the Jewish people were neither deicide nor cursed, but that Christianity was responsible for ambient anti-Semitism by its theological anti-Judaism. This work went on to expose twenty-one points, a veritable "manifesto" for a new theology of the Judeo-Christian relationship.
In 1948, Isaac founded "Judeo-Christian Friendship," whose aim was clearly proclaimed: the "rectification of Christian teaching." Many liberal Catholics participated in these gatherings whose bias was evident. "The ten points of Seelisberg and the twenty-one points of Jesus and Israel were passed out on all sides,"29 writes Kaspi. At the same time, Isaac was persuaded to meet with the head of the Catholic Church. Pius XII received him briefly October 16, 1949, at Castel Gandolfo. Jules Isaac exposed the ten points of Seelisberg to the Sovereign Pontiff; the outcome of the meeting was of little satisfaction to a writer of history manuals.
In October 1959, Cletta Mayer and Daniel Mayer–founders of CEPA (Centre d'Etudes des Problemes Actuels, Center for the Study of Modern Problems), in close collaboration with the Anti-Defamation League (an association created in 1913 by the Masonic Lodge B'nai B'rith)–"met with Jules Isaac in Paris at the Hotel Terminus and spoke with him of an eventual proposition for John XXIII. Jules Isaac approved."30
The idea of convoking a council had been launched by John XXIII several months earlier.31 A preparatory commission was established, in which participated a number of theologians and eminent personalities. However, in the shadows an anti-council was in preparation that was to supplant the true one when the time came. Ralph Wiltgen has given sufficient proof of the fact in The Rhine Flows into the Tiber: A History of Vatican II.32
In mid-June 1960, on the advice of Monsignor Julien, Isaac addressed himself to Augustine Cardinal Bea, the German Jesuit. "I found in him a powerful supporter." It is true that a certain gossip already suspected Cardinal Bea of having "remained Jewish at heart."33 His support was even more powerful than Isaac could have ever hoped. He obtained an audience with Jean XXIII without difficulty, June 13, 1960. On this occasion, Isaac handed the Pope a thesis entitled: On the Necessity of a Reform of Christian Teaching Regarding Israel. "I asked if I might carry away with me some glimmer of hope," Isaac recounts. John XXIII replied that he was entitled to more than a hope, but "that he was not an absolute monarch." After Isaac had left, John XXIII made it quite clear to the administrators of the Vatican Curia that he expected a firm condemnation of Catholic "anti-Semitism" to come from the council he had just convoked. Henceforth there were a number of exchanges between the council offices at the Vatican and organizations of the American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League, as well as those of B'nai B'rith. These Jewish associations knew how to make themselves heard at Rome.34
Indeed, if Isaac worked relentlessly, he was not alone. Rabbi Abraham J. Heschel of the Jewish Theological Seminary of New York, who had heard of Bea for the first time 30 years before in Berlin, sought to meet with the cardinal in Rome. On that occasion, the two men discussed two files prepared by the American Jewish Committee, one on "The image of the Jews in Catholic teaching," the other 20 pages concerning "Anti-Jewish elements in the Catholic liturgy."
Heschel declared that he hoped the Council would expurgate from Catholic teaching all suggestion that the Jews were a cursed race. At the same time, Heschel added, the Council would in no way exhort the Jews to become Christians.35
During the same time-frame, Dr. Goldmann, head of the World Conference of Jewish Organizations, also confided his aspirations to John XXIII. In addition, B'nai B'rith put pressure on Catholics to reform their liturgy and suppress in their religious services any word that might seem unfavorable to the Jews and that calls to mind the "deicide." "Wise and long-mitred heads around the Curia warned that the bishops in council should not touch this issue with ten-foot staffs. But still there was John XXIII, who said they must."36
At Rome, therefore, various Fathers busied themselves with the drafting of a text on Judaism, including Fr. Baum and Monsignor John Osterreicher,37 members of Cardinal Bea's general staff. The declaration, containing a clear refutation of the accusation of deicide, was to be presented at the first session of the Council, opening October 11, 1962. The World Jewish Congress was pleased with the drafting of such a text; it made its satisfaction known, and decided to send the Israeli Dr. Chaïm Y. Ward to the Council as an observer.
The Vatican was immediately besieged by protestations from Arab countries, outraged by the preferential treatment accorded to the Jews. As a result, in June 1962, the Secretary of State, in accord with Cardinal Bea, withdrew from the agenda the discussion of the planned declaration De Judaeis, prepared by the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity.38
An agency–close enough to the Curia to have access to the private addresses of 2,200 cardinals and bishops temporarily residing in Rome–sent simultaneously to each of them a 900-page book entitled The Plot Against the Church and signed with a pseudonym, Maurice Pinay. The thesis of the book–based on numerous facts and multiple citations–was that the Jews had constantly sought to infiltrate the Church and subvert her teaching and that they were on the point of succeeding. Such documentary evidence should have warned the Council Fathers of a subversive movement within the Council. The utmost prudence was called for.
The withdrawal of the project for a declaration on the Jews at the first session of the Council was a veritable defeat for Bea, who nonetheless refused to be discouraged. March 31, 1963, at the Hotel Plana in New York, he had a secret meeting with the authorities of the American Jewish Committee,39 who insisted that the united bishops change the theology of the Church concerning the history of salvation. "Globally," he said, "the Jews are accused of being guilty of deicide, and a curse supposedly weighs upon them." He refuted these two accusations and reassured the rabbis. Those present in the room wanted to know if the declaration would admit publicly that deicide, the curse, and the rejection of the Jewish people by God, were errors in Christian teaching. Bea replied evasively and this high-society gathering drew to a close over a glass of sherry!
A short time later Rolf Hochhuth's play The Deputy premiered, calumniating Pius XII on his attitude during the war. This way of putting pressure was not terribly subtle, but it could have an influence on the conciliar assembly...
Over the course of the second session of the Council, in the fall of 1963, the declaration on the Jews was put in the hands of the bishops. From then on it became the fourth chapter of a declaration on ecumenism, which apparently allowed it to pass more discreetly. M. Schuster, the European director of the Jewish-American Committee, considered the distribution of the project to the Council Fathers as "one of the greatest moments in History." The text was discussed at length40 and then strangely withdrawn from the vote at the end of the session. The defenders of Catholic orthodoxy had just distributed a number of works on The Jews in the Light of Scripture and Tradition,41 which should also have alerted the Council Fathers to the enemy's game. Apparently, the warning was again heeded. "Something happened in the wings," commented the National Catholic Welfare Conference.
Without going into the details of a long story, let us just say that two other projects would be proposed and discussed at length during the third and fourth sessions. Over the course of 1964 and 1965, Jewish interventions before Paul VI were to multiply. The personalities with the most influence over the Pope were Joseph Lichten of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, Zachariah Schuster and Leonard Sperry of the American Jewish Committee, the American Cardinal Spellman, Arthur J. Goldberg, American Supreme Court judge, and Rabbi Heschel.
Roddy makes the following revelation:
In Rome [before the third session], six members of the American Jewish Committee had an audience with the Pope....The Pope told his callers he agreed with all Cardinal Spellman had said about Jewish guilt.
A few lines later, he again underlines:
With the American Jewish Committee's Shuster beside him, Heschel talked hard about deicide42 and guilt, and asked the Pontiff to press for a declaration in which Catholics would be forbidden to proselytize Jews.43
On November 20, 1964, during the third session, bishops and cardinals united voted by a large majority in favor of the provisional schema concerning the Church's attitude toward Judaism.44Leon de Poncins hastened to draft an opuscule entitled The Jewish Problem Before the Council, which was distributed to all the Fathers before the fourth and last session. It was the final warning. In his introduction, the author observes "a profound misconception of the essence of Judaism on the part of the Council Fathers."45 The brochure did a certain amount of good, permitting the "front of refusal"46to sharpen its arguments. This front managed to eliminate certain expressions from the first version such as: "Although a large part of the chosen people remain temporarily far from Christ, it would be an injustice to call them a people under a curse...or deicide." It had them replaced by those that figure in the final version of Nostra Aetate adopted October 28, 1965, by 2221 voices, against only 88, during the fourth session: "The Jews should not be presented as repudiated or cursed by God, as though such a conclusion followed from Scripture."
After these troubled years of an unprecedented doctrinal war; after these struggles for influence among the Curia and the Council Fathers; after the diffusion of numerous texts defending the theology of salvation as taught by the Church for two millennia, a compromise was reached over a new text. On the whole, the Jews were disappointed by the document's content. They had hoped for more. Yet a door had been opened...one it would be difficult to close. Indeed, for the first time with Nostra Aetate, the bishops of the Catholic Church had given a positive and bold presentation of unbelieving Jews. André Chouraqui underlines the fact, together with its ramifications:
All of a sudden, the Church, struck by near-total amnesia for almost two millennia, remembers the spiritual bond uniting it to Israel, the race of Abraham, restored to the privileged situation of elder brother in the family of the people of God. This fundamental theological recognition is heavy with consequences that will be revealed for centuries to come....We had to wait twenty centuries before the Church came to a new awareness of her Jewish roots....What is more, the Church categorically rejects all form of proselytism in their regard. She forbids what she once taught.47
John Halperin, of the Office of the World Jewish Conference in Geneva, confirmed Chouraqui's statements on the occasion of a colloquium at Fribourg:
We need to emphasize the fact that the 1965 declaration Nostra Aetate truly opened the way toward an entirely new dialogue and inaugurated in the Church a new way of looking8 at the Jews and Judaism by manifesting the Church's openness to substituting a doctrine of respect for one of contempt.49
We must not forget the immense progress that the declaration Nostra Aetate represents in comparison with the previous situation. A single observation will allow us to appreciate the distance that has been covered. The reader may know that popes and councils, when they promulgate documents destined to all of Christendom, customarily seek out citations in the writings of their predecessors to support the teaching they intend to promote by their new documents, in order to illustrate the continuity of Church doctrine and tradition. However, unlike the Council's text on Islam, there is not a single reference in the declaration on the Jews to any positive precedent, be it in the works of the Fathers, or of ecclesiastical writers, or of the popes.51
Numerous testimonies could be cited to confirm this analysis. We will end with this statement by Paul Giniewski in his fundamental work, Christian Anti-Judaism: The Mutation: "The schema on the Jews, which might have been considered as an end, proved on the contrary and very rapidly to be the inauguration of a new phase in the positive evolution of Judeo-Christian relations."52
The door had been opened....53 The men of the Church admitted that the Jews were no longer "a people under a curse." No longer cursed, nor reprobate. "Henceforth," Chouraqui continues, "the Church recognized the permanence of Judaism in the plan of God, and the irreversible character of the principles defined by Nostra Aetate, thus refusing any restriction or ambiguity in the dialogue with the Jews." The seeds had been sown; they had only to grow... "From then on, it was necessary to keep going forward on the road to mutual recognition between Jews and Christians. But it was impossible to dismiss as profit and loss two thousand years of bloody struggle."54
From Purification to the Introduction of the Noaic Religion
Purifying the Christian Sphere
The debates subsequent to Vatican II's "new awareness" have little by little prepared the Christian world for a new theology of the relations between the Church and Judaism.57 To change our mentality by "many educational efforts" aimed at those of the "Christian sphere": such was the object of the directives issued by the Vatican58 and by the various episcopacies for nearly 40 years. This effort tends toward:
1) Emphasizing the permanence of the first Covenant;
2) Teaching respect for the (unbelieving) Jewish people, "a priestly nation";
3) Renouncing all attempt to convert the Jews;
4) Constantly advancing dialogue and cooperation with Judaism;
5) Preparing the way toward a Noaic religion.
Influential members of the Vatican have encouraged the various episcopacies to publish declarations whose theological content is visibly opposed to the Church's magisterium.
The New "Theology of the Covenant" Introduced by the Episcopacy
Two examples will serve to illustrate our thesis: the text of the French Episcopal Committee for Jewish Relations (Easter, 1973) and the American Episcopacy's Reflections on Covenant and Mission (August 12, 2002). According to the Jews, these two declarations go far beyond the affirmations of the Council. The heterodox expressions are obvious:
Christians should regard Judaism not only as a social and historical reality, but as one that is above all religious; not as an outdated relic of a venerable past, but as a living, evolving reality. The principle indicators of this vitality of the Jewish people are: the testimony of its collective fidelity to one God; its fervor in examining the Scriptures to discover the meaning of human life in the light of Revelation; its search for an identity among other men; its constant effort to gather together into a reunited community. These signs pose to us, Christians, a question that touches the heart of our faith: What is the mission proper to the Jewish people in the plan of God?
An election that endures: the first Covenant was not passing. Contrary to an exegesis that is ancient but difficult to defend, it does not follow from the New Testament that the Jewish people were despoiled of their election. On the contrary, the whole of Scripture moves us to recognize the sign of God's fidelity to His people in the Jewish people's constant effort to remain faithful to the Law and the Covenant. Indeed, the New Covenant did not render the first one obsolete. The Jewish people are conscious of having received a universal mission to the Nations, by way of their unique vocation.59
What is this mission? We will examine that in a paragraph below. The second declaration, more recent, is that of the American bishops. It is truly astonishing:
The Roman Catholic reflections describe the growing respect for the Jewish tradition that has unfolded since the Second Vatican Council. A deepening Catholic appreciation of the eternal covenant between God and the Jewish people, together with a recognition of a divinely-given mission to Jews to witness to God's faithful love, lead to the conclusion that campaigns that target Jews for conversion to Christianity are no longer theologically acceptable in the Catholic Church.60
"Changing the Theology" of the Theologians
The testimonies of theologians on the permanence of the first Covenant are abundant and we could produce a litany of citations. Here are a few of them:
Perhaps we should go to the heart of the issue and consider the dethronement of the mother-religion by the daughter-religion under a new perspective. The idea of the New Covenant taking up where the Old left off is at the origin of the Judeo-Christian split with all of its consequences. In one of his great theological studies, significantly entitled The Covenant Never Abolished, Professor Norbert Lohfink, a Jesuit and professor of Biblical research at the Papal University of Rome, affirms peremptorily: "The popular Christian concept of the New Covenant promotes anti-Judaism."61
Alan Marchandour does not hesitate to write, on the occasion of a colloquium entitled "The Trial of Jesus: The Trial of the Jews?":
For a long time, Christians only saw Israel as a sort of remnant of the past, representing a reality that had been essentially swallowed up by Christianity, the new Israel. Such a language is untenable: Israel exists independently, with its own history, its own institutions, and its own texts. Judaism did not disappear with the appearance of Christianity....It remains the people of the Covenant.63
Charles Perrot, of the Catholic Institute of Paris, expresses a similar way of thinking:
If the Church substitutes itself for Israel–if she replaces Israel–is that not to say by the very fact that she eliminates it, by absorption or worse? Yet such language is dangerous. Can it still be admissible in our day?64
Obtaining the "Revision of History" by the Elite
The Church has to "revise" its history as much as its theology. To this end, the Vatican multiplies the various gatherings of experts. Thus in Rome or in other European cities there are numerous colloquies on the history of the Church concerning its attitude toward Judaism. One of them was recently held at Rome (October 30–November 1, 1997) on The Roots of Christian Anti-Judaism. Historians from around the world came to listen to experts on Judeo-Christian relations. Claude-Francois Jullian reported the object of these debates in The New Observer.
All of the experts reaffirmed the Jewish origins of Christianity and qualified as aberrant the theology of substitution, namely that the New Covenant in Christ would annul the Old Covenant. In opening the symposium, Cardinal Etchegaray (president of the Jubilee organizational committee)65 explained in his gravelly voice, straight from the gorges of the Pyrenees: "It is question of examining the relations between Christians and Jews, too often reversed." The same discourse was taken up by the animator of the encounter, the Swiss Dominican Georges Cottier, the Pope's private theologian (and the president of the Jubilee's theological-historical committee), who reminded his audience: "Our reflection bears on the divine plan of salvation and on the role of the Jewish people within it–the chosen people; the people of the Covenant and of the promises."
And the journalist of the daily poses the question: "Why would Rome call together experts from the five continents in order to verify something that would seem today to be a truth of the faith?"
Another colloquium was held at the University of Fribourg from March 16 to 20, 1998, under the theme of Judaism, Anti-Judaism and Christianity. Editions Saint Augustin published the acts of the colloquium in the year 2000. All the speeches delivered are of the greatest interest.
The European Encounters Between Jews and Catholics were held even more recently, organized by the European Jewish Congress, January 28-29, 2002, in Paris, on the theme: After Vatican II and Nostra Aetate: The Deepening of Relations Between Jews and Catholics in Europe under the Pontificate of John Paul II.67 Several European personalities engaged in the dialogue between Jews and Catholics received honorific awards.
An evening party organized in the conference rooms of the Paris city hall, Monday, January 28, reunited some 700 people, Catholics and Jews. At the speaker's table were seated Master Henri Hajdenberg, president of the gathering; Cardinal Lustiger; the chief rabbi of Moscow, Pinchas Goldschmidt; the chief rabbi Rene Samuel Sirat; Dr. Michel Friedman, vice-president of the European Jewish Congress; and Walter Cardinal Kasper, president of the Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with Judaism. In their discourses, all of the speakers underlined the importance of the progress made since Nostra Aetate:
Much was said that evening about the present relations between Jews and Catholics: a new spirit passed over us, truly translating into action the gestures and the words of Catholics, above all those of John Paul II. "A new page; a new step;" such is the sentiment, moreover, that would continue to be confirmed during the course of the next day. After the exposes of the different speakers, the projection of the film Pope John Paul II in the Holy Land imposed an impressive silence over the vast conference room. Over the course of the following day, January 29, before a more limited public, in the presence of several cardinals, bishops and Jewish personalities, as well as a few delegations of people from Germany, Austria, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, and Poland, in a frank and positive atmosphere, speakers discussed The Evolution of Judeo-Catholic Relations: From the Theory of Substitution to Mutual Respect, and The Necessary Transmission of the Memory of Shoah, in the context of today.
Over the course of the afternoon, various speakers exposed The Challenges of Assimilation and Secularization, and The Evolution of Judeo-Catholic Relations with the State of Israel and Jerusalem. A common declaration between Jews and Catholics brought the day to a close.68
We could multiply the accounts of the various reunions, congresses, colloquia, days of encounter, etc., that spring up every year.
Changing the Content of Predication and Catechesis
The Roman Notes from June 24, 1985, should be read and meditated in the light of what has just been said: Notes on the Correct Way to Present the Jews and Judaism in Preaching and Catechesis in the Roman Catholic Church.69
Changing the Popular Mind-Set by Dramatic Gestures
The gesture of John Paul II at the synagogue of Rome, April 13, 1986, is an illustration of this method. His visit was highly symbolic: "The Church of Christ, in the person of John Paul II, comes forward to the synagogue and discovers its link with Judaism by contemplating its own mystery." John Paul II said on this occasion:
The Jewish religion is not "extrinsic" to us, but in a certain way is "intrinsic" to our own religion. With Judaism therefore we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion. You are our dearest brothers and, in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers.70
Christians Ought to Respect the Jewish Right to the Land of Israel, Physical Center of the Covenant
The most important event for Jews since the Holocaust has been the re-establishment of a Jewish state in the Promised Land. As members of a biblically-based religion, Christians appreciate that Israel was promised–and given–to Jews as the physical center of the covenant between them and God.71
Christians have no other choice than to be thrilled about the presence of the Jews in the Holy Land.
● the "vidouy," that is to say, the sincere recognition of the fault committed and of one's errors;
● the "techouva," which signifies conversion to the contrary behavior;
● finally, and most importantly, the "tikkun" or the reparation.
The Jewish writer asks himself which phase we have reached. "The techouva" he replies, without hesitation. This phase will not be achieved until the day
when the teaching of respect will be formulated in didactic texts and their propagation will have raised up numerous vocations of students and teachers of the new doctrine. The objective is ambitious: to cause a teaching to be heard and accepted that is contrary to the one that was previously taught....Thus the crucifixion of the Jews will come to an end.
Finally, the Church will have to make reparation. Certain authors have already described what the "tikkun" will be.
Then the Jews will once again assume their role before the nations, a role that is clarified in a number of works including a brochure destined to popularize the theme, The Mission of Israel: A Priestly People,73 by Patrick Petit-Ohayon, which contains an excellent summary.
The Repentance of the Year 2000, or the Vidouy
March 12, 2000, at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, John Paul II, in the name of the Catholic Church, read a mea culpa74 for the faults of Christians over the course of history. This gesture can only be understood in the context of a new consciousness of the Church's persecution "by the Inquisition"75 (a system of violence and constraint) of the people of the Covenant, long despoiled and persecuted. Thus Christians have accomplished their "vidouy."
Furthermore, so that these actions would be sufficiently clear to both parties, namely to Christians as well as to Jews, the text of repentance was slipped by John Paul II himself into a crack in the Wailing Wall,76 part of the ruins of the Temple of the Old Covenant. A wall that awaits only to be reconstructed in the religious capital of the renewed Covenant: Jerusalem dethroning Rome, the usurper.77
Toward a Noaic Religion
If the Church is no longer the verus Israel, what does she become in the new theology of salvation?
This study is already lengthy, and is not the place to present all the aspects of the Noaic religion. This religion, introduced with Vatican II, is destined to supplant Catholicism.78 The subject is so vast that a colloquium could easily be consecrated to it. We will give a few historical markers and point out various aspects of this new "Catholicism."
After the French Revolution, which emancipated the Jews and permitted them to enter civil societies, the rabbis and Jewish thinkers considered the religious aspect of the world they were bringing into being. It would also be necessary to resolve the religious problem that would most certainly arise. What was at stake in these theological debates between the rabbis of the 19th century can be summarized as follows: "When we will have recovered our role as a people called to bring salvation to the Gentiles, what will be the religion of Christians, who imagined themselves to be the new Israel?"
Elijah Benamozegh, the rabbi of Livorno, the Plato of Italian Judaism and "one of the masters of contemporary Jewish thought,"79 proposed a solution that he published in 1884 in his master-work Israel and Humanity.80 The sub-title is evocative: A Study on the Problem of a Universal Religion, and Its Solution. Benamozegh's solution, around which would rally little by little the supporters of Judaism, can be summarized as follows:
The Catholic Church should reform her teaching on three points. She should:
● change her way of looking at the Jews, rehabilitating them as the elder people, a priestly people "who was able to maintain the primitive religion in its original purity." It is a people neither deicide nor rejected by God. No curse weighs upon it. On the contrary, it is destined to proposed happiness and unity to all of humanity. "To recognize its function," writes Gerard Haddad,81 citing Benamozegh, "which Paul82 thought he could eliminate."
● "Renounce the belief in the divinity of Jesus, the Son of Man, as He called Himself." Jesus was a simple rabbi, and so He remained. Preach Jesus Christ, but a human Jesus Christ, come to bring a certain moral code for the happiness of all men.
● Accept a reinterpretation–not a suppression–of the mystery of the Trinity.
On these three conditions, "the Catholic Church is the Church of true Catholicism," a true Catholicism that Benamozegh names Noachism, the religion for all those who belong to the "Christian sphere," as Lustiger calls it. This Noachism83 possesses a morality that the Church is called to reveal to the peoples of the earth. The American Judeo-Episcopal Declaration of August 12, 2002, refers to it explicitly:
Judaism assumes that all people are obligated to observe a universal law. That law, spoken of as the Seven Noahide Commandments, is applicable to all human beings. These laws are: 1) the establishment of a court of justice so that law will rule in society; and the prohibitions of 2) blasphemy, 3) idolatry, 4) incest, 5) bloodshed, 6) robbery, and 7) of eating the flesh of a living animal.
The new end of the Church will be the evangelization of the nations to this Noaic humanitarianism, as well as their unification.84 The primacy of Rome will be redefined to facilitate the unity of Christians. Noachism will be "the religion of natural morality"! For in no way must the non-Jew seek to convert to Judaism or Talmudic Mosaism, a religion that is reserved for the Chosen People. Benamozegh's solution, long neglected, is now being adopted by the authorities of the Jewish world. The chief rabbi Rene Samuel Sirat, for example alluded to the status of non-Jews at the funeral of a young Frenchman of 24, victim of a terrorist attack against the cafeteria of the Hebraic University of Jerusalem, July 31, 2002:
David, my dear David, you had chosen to draw near to our Jewish community spiritually and culturally, and to claim for yourself the beautiful title of guer toshav, denoting one who is at once stranger and citizen to Judaism, such as was praised in the Bible and marvelously rendered explicit in the last century by the rabbi Elijah Benamozegh, in his book Israel and Humanity. It is a question of a free decision to draw close to the tradition of Israel, and to observe the seven laws–called the Noaic laws–of natural morality revealed long ago to Noah, father of all the living....For is it necessary to repeat that one is not obliged to convert to Judaism in order to merit eternal salvation.85
The new religion that came from Vatican II ought to be understood in the light of the struggle–ancient, but always new–between Jesus (Mary) and Satan; the Church and the Synagogue. In the 20th century, Satan seems to have found his Trojan horse (Vatican II) full of Achaeans bent on subversive theology.
At the heart of this movement [of conversion]–and this has been taught explicitly by Christian theologians such as Louis Bouyer, Yves Congar and Henri de Lubac...86–lies the rediscovery of faith....This is the task which the Catholic Church and many Christians want to carry out today.
No, your Eminence. We are Roman Catholics, and our faith is in Jesus Christ, true God and true man, born of the most pure womb of the Virgin Mary through the operation of the Holy Spirit; our faith is in Jesus Christ, Savior of man, crucified under Pontius Pilate and raised from the dead, come to fulfill the Law and the Prophets in founding the Church of Rome–Catholic and Apostolic–the new and eternal Covenant. This is not the Covenant that you are preaching. With the help of God, and with the help of the magisterium of the Church and her Tradition of 2000 years, we will not die Noaic.
This fidelity may obtain for the Jews to accept the precious graces of the Redemption–graces that the Virgin Mary is able to bestow in abundance–just as Drach, Libermann, Ratisbonne, Lemann, Zolli, and so many others have already accepted them: true converts, true sons of the Roman Church, and true sons of Mary.
God of goodness, Father of mercy, we beg You by the Immaculate Heart of Mary, through the intercession of the patriarchs and the holy Apostles, to cast Your eyes with compassion on the remains of Israel in order that they might come to know our only Savior, Jesus Christ, and that they might participate in the precious graces of the Redemption. Lord, forgive them, for they know not what they do. (Prayer indulgenced by Leo XIII and St. Pius X)
Translated exclusively by Angelus Press. For as many footnotes as possible, Angelus Press has located authorized English sources and translations, which are very important to this article. Originally published in Le Sel de la Terre. Autumn 2003, No.46. Michel Laurigan is the pseudonym of a history professor in France specializing in modern Church history. He assists at the Latin Mass.
1. Noaic (or Noahide) Law: The law given by Noah after the Flood. The plan in question, revealed by Elijah Benamozegh in his work Israel and Humanity (1884), will be elaborated in the present article. Allow us simply to cite here what Jacob Kaplan, the great Parisian rabbi, declared on the subject in 1966: "According to our doctrine, the Jewish religion is not the only one that assures salvation. Non-Jews are also saved if they believe in a supreme God and have a moral code, thus obeying the so-called Noaic Laws, those that the Creator handed down to Noah....Consequently, our rabbis teach that the just of every nation have the right to eternal salvation. It is uniquely for the Jews that, in addition to the Noaic Laws, there exist the precepts of the Torah and the Law of Moses, which have their reason for being in the divine project of forming a people destined for religious action in the world. The hope of Israel is not therefore the conversion of the human race to Judaism but to monotheism. As for Biblical religions, they are, according to our greatest theologians, creeds whose role is to prepare alongside Israel the coming of the Messianic Age announced by the prophets. Thus we desire most ardently to work in common with them toward the realization of this essentially Biblical ideal... .In this way we may hasten the coming of the Messianic Era, which will be one of love, justice and peace." Jacob Kaplan, Dialogue avec le père Danielou, S.J., le 10 fevrier 1966 au theatre des ambassadeurs à Paris [Conversation with Fr. Danielou, S.J., Feb. 10, 1966, at the Ambassador Theater in Paris] (Paris: 1966). Translator's note: Information on Jacob Kaplan as well as photographs are available at: http://www.sdv.fr/judaisme/histoire/ rabbins/kaplan/index.htm.
2. Translator's note: "B'nai B'rith: A fraternal Jewish organization founded in the United States in 1843. In Hebrew, B'nai B'rith means 'the sons of the Covenant.' The goal of this association is to maintain Jewish tradition and culture and to fight against anti-Semitism... .The members call themselves 'Brothers'; they receive an initiation and reunite in lodges." Dictionnaire Universel de la maçonnerie [Universal Dictionary of Free-Masonry] (Evry: Presse Universitaire de France, 1987)
4. See the entire text of the declaration in Nouvelle Revue Theologique, vol. 120, no. 4, Oct./Nov. 1998, pp. 529-543. The Cardinal introduces his subject as follows: "How moving it is for me to be made to feel welcome in this famous and venerable synagogue, already over a century old!" The cardinal has just published a synthesis of his thought, which is a sort of Judeo-Christian syncretism, in a work entitled La Promesse, [The Promise] (Paris: Parole & Silence, 2002). Claude Vigee gives the following review of the cardinal's book: "Jean-Marie Lustiger shows that we cannot reject the election of Israel, under pain of destroying the very heart of Christianity. This is the key to his book. He needed great courage to write these lines, given his social and spiritual status. Christians will find it difficult to forgive him for reminding them that, without the election of Israel, there is no Christian election possible....Do you realize that if he had written the same lines during the time of the Inquisition.. .he would doubtless have been thrown to the fire!" France Catholique, no. 2857, Nov. 2002, p. 10. Translator's note: See http://www.nostreradici.it/lustiger.htm for the full text of the Cardinal's speech. For a review in English of La Promesse (not yet translated), see http://www.upi.com/ view.cfm?StoryID=20030110-075845-9182r.
7. In his most recent book, Cardinal Lustiger distinguishes two Churches, that of Jerusalem, "the Church that is, in the Catholic Church, the permanence of the promise made to Israel...and which only survived, at the very latest, until the 6th century, destroyed by the influence of Byzantium. That is one of the major losses suffered by the Christian consciousness. The memory of the grace granted to it was thus practically repressed–I would not say by the Church as the Spouse of Christ, but rather by Christians" (p. 17). Secondly, the Church of the pagano-Christians of the 6th century until Vatican II: "The sin into which fell the pagano-Christians–be they churchmen or princes or peoples–was to appropriate Christ to themselves in disfiguring Him, then to make their god of this disfigurement....Their misunderstanding of Israel is the proof of their misunderstanding of Christ, whom they claim to serve." La Promesse (Paris: Editions Parole et Silence, 2002), p. 81. Is Cardinal Lustiger still Catholic?
9. Reading these lines, it would seem that Cardinal Lustiger condemns the benefits of the Edict of Milan of the year 313. Better yet, Constantine supposedly "denied redemption the time...required" by casting aside the Jews. An odd reading of Church history!
10. For the Cardinal of Paris, the substitution of the Christian people for the people of the Old Covenant is quite simply a myth! "I am pleased to see that in your book The Promise, you reject the theology of substitution." Rabbi Josy Eisenberg to J. M. Lustiger, Le Nouvel Observateur, no. 1988, from Dec. 12-18, 2002, p. 116.
11. In the text, the information given here in parentheses is a footnote in which the author cites the Marquis de la Franquerie, Ascendances Davidiques des Rois de France [Davidic Origins of the Kings of France] (Villegenon: Editions Sainte Jeanne d'Arc, 1984), p. 79.
14. Translator's note: The Cardinal concludes as follows: "This is part of the movement through which humankind is being united, even at the cost of confrontations. This orientation testifies to the Catholic Church's determination to carry out her mission in the service of this world, to do the will of the Creator of Israel and Redeemer of humanity."
15. Paris, January 28-29, 2002. The speech is entitled: "De Jules Isaac à Jean-Paul II: questions pour l' avenir" [From Jules Isaac to John Paul II: Questions for the Future]. See the text of the speech in The Promise, pp. 185-188 or in the work Rencontres europeens entre juifs et catholiques organises par le Congresjuif europeen [European Encounters Between Jews and Catholics, organized by the European Jewish Congress], Jan. 28-29, 2002 (Ecole Cathedrale: Editions Parole et Silence, 2002).
Translator's note: For an account of the meetings, see www.jcrelations.net, "News." This site is sponsored by the International Council of Christians and Jews, "with 38 Christian-Jewish and interreligious member organizations in 32 countries."
16. Brussels, April 22-23, 2002. "Juifs et Chretiens. Que doivent-ils esperer de leur rencontre? [What Can Jews and Christians Hope for When They Meet?]" Speech published in The Promise, pp. 189-202. See the paragraph smacking of heresy entitled: "La liberté religieuse, cle de la democratic. [Religious Liberty: The Key to Democracy.]"
Translator's note: This text and the following are available on the site www.jcrelations.net, under "Observations, Experience."
17. Washington, May 8, 2002. "Que signifie, dans le choc des cultures, la rencontre des chretiens et des juifs? [What Do Christian-Jewish Encounters Mean as Civilizations Clash?]" in The Promise, pp. 203-218.
18. Lustiger believes in Jesus Christ, the Messias, but as a Jewish Messias. Reread the very pertinent article "Dieu est-il anti-semite, 1'infiltration judaique dans 1'Eglise conciliaire" [Is God Anti-Semitic? The Jewish Infiltration in the Conciliar Church] by Hubert le Caron, Fideliter, 1987. The author studies the "attempt to Judaize the Roman Church" and the cardinal's interview with France Soir, Feb. 3,1981: "I am Jewish. For me, the two religions are one and I have not betrayed that of my ancestors," pp. 83-115. However, not all Jews belong to this Judeo-Christianity. See the article entitled: "Non, Monsieur le cardinal [No, Your Eminence]" by Rabbi Josy Eisenberg, Le Nouvel Observateur, no. 1988, p. 116. [Available on-line, in French.] The cardinal's near silence concerning the Virgin Mary is eloquent. True converts, such as the Frs. Lemann, have preached magnificently on Mary, Co-Redemptrix.
19. The unfaithful Jews became the instruments of Satan in his battle against the Church and the Mother of God. In the Gospel according to St. John, 8:24, 39, 41-42, 44, we read: Jesus said: '"If you do not believe that I am He [the Messias], you will die in your sin....If you are the children of Abraham, do the works of Abraham ....But you do the works of your father.' They therefore said to Him, 'We have not been born of fornication; we have one Father, God.' Jesus therefore said to them, 'If God were your Father, you would surely love Me. For from God I came forth and have come... .The father from whom you are is the devil, and the desires of your father it is your will to do.'"
21. See in particular the small work by Theodore Ratisbonne, La Question juive [The Jewish Question] (Paris: Editions Dentu, 1856), p.31. The French text is available on the internet at www.gallica.bnf.fr.
22. Josue Jehouda, L 'Antisemitisme, miroir du monde, preface by Jacques Soustelle (Geneva: Editions Synthesis, 1958), 283pp. Jehouda figures himself as the successor of the rabbi of Livorno, Elijah Benamozegh. His other books are of greater interest: La Terre promise [The Promised Land] (Paris: Rieder, 1925), 122pp.; Les Cinq etapes du juddisme emancipe [The Five Stages of Emancipated Judaism] (Geneva: Editions Synthesis, 1946), 132 pp. (extract from the Jewish review of Geneva, 1936-1937); La Vocation d'Israel [The Vocation of Israel] (Paris: Zeluck, 1947), 240pp.; Le Monotheisme, doctrine de l'unite [Monotheism: Doctrine of Unity] (Geneva: Editions Synthesis, 1952), 175pp.; Institut pour l'etude du monotheisme [Institute for the Study of Monotheism], Cahiers (I.E.M.), vol.1, March 1952; Sionisme et messianisme [Zionism and Messianism] (Geneva: Editions Synthesis, 1954), 318pp.; Cahiers (I.E.M.), vol. 3, October 1954; Israel et la Chretiente. La Lecon de l'histoire [Israel and Christianity: The Lesson of History] (Geneva: Editions Synthesis, 1956), 263pp.; Israel et le monde (synthese de la pensee juive) [Israel and the World: A Synthesis of Jewish Thought] (Paris: Editeur Scientifique, undated); Le Marxisme face au monotheisme etau christianisme [Marxism before Monotheism and Christianity] (Geneva: Editions Synthesis, 1962), 71pp.; Joshua Jehouda also wrote the preface to one of the works of Elijah Benamozegh, Morale juive et morale chretienne [Jewish Morality and Christian Morality], revised and corrected edition (Baconniere, 1946), 272pp.
Translator's note: The works of Jehouda do not seem to have been translated into English, if not in citation, as in the following example: "The dogmatic exclusiveness professed by Christianity must finally end....It is the obstinate Christian claim to be the sole heir to Israel which propagates anti-Semitism. This scandal must terminate sooner or later; the sooner it goes, the sooner the world will be rid of the tissue of lies in which anti-Semitism shrouds itself." (Joshua Jehouda, L'Antisemitisme Miroir du Monde, pp. 135-136; Vicomte Léon de Poncins, Judaism and the Vatican: An Attempt at Spiritual Subversion [London: Britons Publishing Company, 1967], pp. 30-31)
23. Josue Jehouda, L'Antisemitisme, miroir du monde, pp. 161-162, cited in the Leon de Poncin's brochure, Le Probleme juif face au Concile [The Jewish Problem before the Council], p. 27. This brochure was distributed to all the Fathers of the Council in 1965 before the fourth session. See below the historical circumstances of this diffusion.
25. See: Mes souvenirs de la Conference de Seelisberg et de I'abbe Journet [My Memories of the Seelisberg Conference and of Fr. Journet] by Rabbi A. Safran as well as "La Charte de Seelisberg et la participation du cardinal Journet" [The Chart of Seelisberg and the Participation of Cardinal Journet] by Monsignor P. Mamie, at the Colloquium of the University of Fribourg, March 16-20,1998, whose theme was "Judaism, Anti-Judaism and Christianity," published as Juddisme, anti-juddisme et christianisme, Benedict Viviano (Saint Maurice: Editions Saint Augustin, 2000), pp. 13-35. Fr. Journet was invited to the conference by the Reverend Fr. de Menasce, O.P., a converted Egyptian Jew. As for Jacques Maritain, he was invited by the pastor of Geneva, Pierre Visseur.
26. The whole of the text was published by the review Nova et Vetera, 1946-47, pp. 312-317. It was entitled "Contre 1'anti-semitisme" [Against Anti-Semitism]. We read there: "Christians will also understand that they must attentively revise and purify their own language, where routine–not always innocent, and in any case singularly careless of rigor and exactitude–has allowed absurd expressions to slip into usage, such as that of 'deicide race,' or a way of reciting the history of the Passion that is more racist than Christian, and encourages Christian children to a hatred of their Jewish companions."
28. Andre Kaspi, Jules Isaac, historien, acteur du rapprochement judeo-chretien (Paris: Plon, 2002), p.215. Translator's note: Kaspi is a professor of history at the Sorbonne. Jules Isaac: Historian and Actor in the Judeo-Christian Reconciliation has not yet been translated into English; the following site contains excerpts in French, with a photograph of Jules Isaac: http:// www.uejf.org/tohubohu/culture/julesisaac.html.
31. John XXIII's famous inspiration at St. Paul Without the Walls remains troubling. It would be interesting to know if Jules Isaac or the various Jewish organizations played a role in the decision taken by John XXIII. We know that in 1923 the cardinals advised Pius XI against such a convocation. Cardinal Billot even had the clairvoyance to tell the Pope: "Ought we not fear to see the council 'hi-jacked' by the worst enemies of the Church, the modernists, who, according to clear indications, are already preparing to take advantage of an Estates-General of the Church in order to launch their revolution, a new 1789?" Cited by Bishop Tissierde Mallerais in Marcel Lefebvre (Etampes: Clovis, 2002), p. 289.
33. Egyptian newspapers were the ones to publish the rumors. See Augustine Cardinal Bea's work: L'Eglise et les Juifs (Paris: Cerf, 1967), [Published in English as The Church and the Jewish People (New York: Harper and Row, 1966)] and the article by J. Cardinal Willebrands, "La contribution du cardinal Bea au mouvement oecumenique, à la liberté religieuse et a l'instauration de relations nouvelles avec le people juif" [Cardinal Bea's Contribution to the Ecumenical Movement, to Religious Liberty, and to the Establishment of New Relations with the Jewish People], Documentation Catholique no. 79, 1982, pp. 199-207.
Translator's note: Documentation Catholique offers a French version of texts and news releases issued by the Vatican; in general, the same texts can be found in the corresponding edition of L'Osservatore Romano. For an interesting appreciation of the role of Cardinals Bea and Willebrands, see the speech delivered at Boston College, Nov. 6, 2002, by Walter Cardinal Kasper, "Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews: A Crucial Endeavor of the Catholic Church," available at: http://www.bigbrother.net/ ~ mugwump/ FAITH/. This site also contains links to a number of resources on Jewish-Christian relations.
34. See the article "How the Jews Changed Catholic Thought," by senior editor Joseph Roddy, in the review Look, Jan. 20, 1966, vol.30, No.2–translated and published in full in Le Sel de la Terre, no. 34, Autumn 2000, pp. 196-215. These few lines rely heavily on this article.
Translator's note: The entire text of this famous article has been posted at: http://www.abbc.com/aaargh/fran/actu/actu03/doc2003/vaticanll.html.
35. Léon de Poncins, Le Judaisme et le Vatican, une tentative de subversion spirituelle (Paris: Editions Saint Remi, 2001), p. 204. [For the English edition of this work, see note 21.] The similarity of expression in the American Judeo-Episcopal declaration of Aug. 12, 2002, is absolutely staggering: "Ought Christians to invite Jews to baptism? This is a complex question not only in terms of Christian theological self-definition, but also because of the history of Christians forcibly baptizing Jews. In a remarkable and still most pertinent study paper presented at the sixth meeting of the International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee in Venice twenty-five years ago, Prof. Tommaso Federici examined the missiological implications of Nostra Aetate. He argued on historical and theological grounds that there should be in the Church no organizations of any kind dedicated to the conversion of Jews." "Reflections on Covenant and Mission, Issued by the Bishops' Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs Committee and the National Council of Synagogues, Says Targeting Jews for Conversion not Acceptable," Washington, August 13, 2002.
40. "Chapters IV and V on the Jews and on religious liberty were to raise the most heated debate between innovators and traditionalists. What is at stake is none other than the Church's renouncement of its monopoly over a unique truth." Henri Tincq, L'Etoile et la Croix. Jean-Paul II-Israel: L'explication [The Star and the Cross: John Paul II-Israel: The Explanation] (Paris: J.C. Lattes, 1993), p. 30. The Eastern patriarchs were to be among the most courageous in defending the theology of the Church, notably Cardinal Tappouni, the Syrian Patriarch of Antioch; Maximos IV, the Melchite Patriarch of Damascus; Stephen I Sidarous, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
41. In addition, they distributed Les Hebreux et le Concile [The Hebrews and the Council] by a certain Bernardus. See Rene Laurentin, L'Eglise et les juifs à Vatican II [The Church and the Jews at Vatican II] (Casterman, 1967).
42. A subject for study: "Deicide and the Council." In fact, the debates on the subject were extremely lively and impassioned. Thus Cardinal Bea: "Granting that the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem represented the Jewish people, had it fully understood the divinity of Christ? If the response is no, then there was no formal deicide"; or Cardinal Ruffini, Archbishop of Palermo, who took the floor to exclaim: "We cannot say that the Jews are deicide for the one good reason that you can't kill God." See Henri Tincq, op. cit., p. 36, and R. Braun "Le people juif est-il deicide?" [Are the Jewish People Deicide?] an article published in the review Rencontres chretiens et juifs, no. 10, supplement, 1975, pp. 54-71. The subject remains a burning question, with the polemic surrounding Mel Gibson's film The Passion, scheduled for release over Easter of 2004.
43. These meetings, kept officially secret, worried the good bishops. Roddy confides: "It was undercover summit conferences of that sort that led conservatives to claim that American Jews were the new powers behind the Church." Ibid., p. 206.
44. Henri Fesquet made the following commentary on the preparatory schema: "Ninety-nine Fathers voted no, 1,650 voted yes, and 242 voted yes with reservations. The Eastern bishops intervened as a group to declare their opposition to any declaration on the Jews by the Council. However, the final vote will take place at the end of the fourth session, in 1965." Le Monde, November 27, 1964.
46. Monsignor Luigi Carli, faithful friend of Archbishop Lefebvre at the Coetus Internationalis Patrum, published in his diocesan review of February 1965 that "the Jews of Christ's era and their descendants until this day were collectively guilty of the death of Christ." [Translator's note: Coetus Internationalis Patrum was an association founded by Archbishop Lefebvre reuniting 450 bishops at the Council for the defense of orthodoxy.]
47. Andre Chouraqui, La Reconnaissance. Le Saint-Siege, les juifs et Israel [Recognition: The Holy See, the Jews, and Israel] (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1992), p. 200. Translator's note: Although a number of Chouraqui's works have been translated, this title does not seem to exist in English.
52.Paul Giniewski, L'Anti-judaisme chretien: la mutation (Paris: Salvator, 1993 [new edition in 2000]), p. 506. This book is a must-read for anyone who would like to understand events in the light of the struggle between the Church and the Synagogue.
53. Cardinal Lustiger, during his speech before the European Jewish Conference in Paris in 2002, was able to resume the history of Judeo-Christian relations between 1945 and 1965: "The signers of Seelisberg were hopeful. Jules Isaac knocked on the door. Vatican II opened it by the declaration Nostra Aetate." It would be difficult to formulate a better synthesis. La Promesse, p. 187.
55. The expression is also Lustiger's, taken from his speech at the New York synagogue (see above). "This new awareness was condensed for the Catholic Church in the Second Vatican Council's Nostra Aetate Declaration. In the last 30 years it has given way to many comments, especially on the initiatives of Pope John Paul II. However, this new understanding still has to remodel in depth the ideas of many peoples who belong to the Christian sphere but whose hearts have not yet been purified by the Spirit of the Messias." What precisely is "the Spirit of the Messias"?
57. The reviews Istina and Sens have reproduced a large part of these debates and the new theological principles. See among others: "Essai de programme pour une theologie apres Auschwitz," by Franz Mussner, Istina, no. 36, 1991, pp. 346-351. Translator's note: "Theology after Auschwitz: A Provisional Program." Available in English at www.jcrelations.net, under "Scholarly Contributions."
58. See "Catholiques et Juifs: un nouveau regard. Notes de la Commission du Saint-Siege pour les relations avec le judaisme" [Catholics and Jews: A New Consideration. Reflections of the Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with Judaism], Documentation Catholique, no. 82, 1985, pp.733-738. See also the "Discours de Jean-Paul II aux delegues des conferences episcopales pour les relations avec le judaisme" [Discourse of John Paul II to the Delegates of Episcopal Conferences for Relations with Judaism], Documentation Catholique, no. 1827, April 4, 1982, pp. 339-340.
59. See the site of the S.I.D.I.C.: Service International de Documentation Judeo-Chretiens. The home page presents the site as follows: "What is the S.I.D.I.C.? It is a Catholic organism animated by the Sisters of Sion. Its objective? To bring into the lives of Christians the directives of Vatican II concerning the relations between the Church and the Jewish people. Who is concerned by this? Every Christian who wishes to delve into his faith even to its Jewish roots, to struggle against anti-Semitism, and to know and recognize his Jewish brothers." What has happened to the Catholic spirit of the Ratisbonne brothers, who wanted to lead the Jews to Christ, the Redeemer? Translator's note: The International Service of Jewish-Christian Documentation is available in English at: http://www.sidic.org/english/aboutus.htm, with a link to Reflections on Covenant and Mission.
60. "Reflections on Covenant and Mission, Issued by the Bishops' Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs Committee and the National Council of Synagogues, Says Targeting Jews for Conversion not Acceptable," Washington, Aug. 12, 2002, op. cit.
65. Translator's note: See Roger Cardinal Etchegaray's article "Why the Christian Faith Needs Judaism" in the Vatican magazine Jubilee or Jubilaeum AD 2000, no. 5, Nov., 1997, part of the colloquium's "Dossier: The Roots of Anti-Judaism in the Christian Environment," available on-line at: http://www.vatican.va/ jubilee_2000/index.htm.
69. Documentation Catholique, no. 1985, pp. 733-738. Translator's note: L'Osservatore Romano, July 1, 1985. The entire text of the declaration can be found at: www.us-israel.org/jsource/anti-semitisrn/Commission_For_ Religious_Relations_With_the Jews.html, or the website of the Center for Catholic-Jewish Studies.
70. Allocution of John Paul II at the synagogue of Rome, in Juifs et Chretiens (Paris: Cerf, 1986), pp. 54-55. See Documentation Catholique, no. 1986, pp. 433-439. The serious problem that this text poses is the esteem it expresses for the unbelieving Jews, who have not recognized Jesus Christ as the Messias, nor the Catholic Church as the sole ark of salvation.
Translator's note: See L'Osservatore Romano, April 13, 1986, or find a link to the entire text, as well as other Church documents on Jewish-Christian relations since Vatican II, at: www.ccju.org/ccju_official_docs.htm, the website of the International Council of Christians and Jews.
71. Dabru Emet–A Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity, from the National Jewish Scholars Project, Sept. 2000. See the site www.chretiens-et-juifs.org. [For the English text, see the site mentioned in note 14, www.jcrelations.net.] Andre Paul, Biblical scholar and theologian, seems to reproach Cardinal Lustiger for his "Zionism" (La Promesse): "To the disjointed stream of exegesis, dripping with pathos, in which the cliches are spread around freely like some Judeo-Christian secret code, succeed the perfectly legitimate calls to a 'mutual understanding' (p. 189) between Jews and Christians–but it is only in order to affirm, this time in no uncertain terms, that the political sionism put in place in 1948 is something 'necessary' (p. 182); better yet, it is a gift of God." L'Express, no. 2683, Dec. 5-11, 2002, p. 96. For the Jews, their presence in the Holy Land is evidently a theological issue. Furthermore, the project for the restoration of the Temple is well underway.
73. La Mission d'Israel, un people de pretres. If the Jewish people are a people of "priests," what becomes of the Catholic priest, that other Christ, in the new theology? Shouldn't he disappear? Or should he change in nature? We know that Satan has always detested the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and that he seeks by every means to eradicate the priest and the sacrifice of the New Covenant. The year 1988 was therefore a defeat for Satan: Archbishop Lefebvre saved the episcopacy and the priesthood by the consecration of true Catholic bishops, who alone can "create" true Catholic priests. The redemptive sacrifice can be perpetuated, and can continue to save souls.
74. See what Andre Chouraqui asked for eight years earlier (1992) in a chapter entitled: "Pour un grand pardon universel [For a Great Universal Pardon]": "Certain Christians would like the Catholic Church to organize a solemn ceremony of expiation to ask forgiveness for the crimes, the injuries, and the damages inflicted directly or indirectly on the Jews by Christians," op. cit., p. 214. See also: Brother Johann, Juifs et Chretiens, d'hier à demain [Jews and Christians: From Yesterday to Tomorrow] (Paris: Cerf, 1990), p. 56: "The total damage caused by the attitude of Christians toward the Jews throughout History is unfortunately quite overwhelming. There is a serious and urgent need for the Catholic Church to express publicly and officially its profound sorrow before all the evil for which Christian teaching has been the principal cause." Chouraqui reveals: "Such a request for forgiveness had been suggested as early as 1945 by various influential voices, notably that of Jacques Maritain, Paul Claudel, and more recently Cardinal Etchegaray," op. cit., p. 214.
75. See the study by Michel Feretti, L'Eglise est ses Inquisitions [The Church and Her Inquisitions] (Editions Saint Remi, 2001), 77 pp. "The myths and black legends about the Inquisition are no longer taken seriously by historians. From Bennassar to Testas, the University has produced a number of serious studies on the subject. But this historical truth is far from being known or admitted by the media universe and the mainstream systems of communication (including school manuals). Hence the utility of Michel Feretti's work, which offers a clear, well documented synthesis. Michel Feretti sheds new light on ill-accepted truths and eliminates certain 'myths' once and for all." Yves Chiron, Present, Dec. 29, 2001.
77. For those who would like to investigate more deeply: Abraham Livni, Le Retour d'Israel et l'Esperance du Monde [The Return of Israel and the Hope of the World] (Editions du Rocher, Hatsour collection, 1984); Paul Giniewski, Les Complices de Dieu, definition et mission d'lsrael [God's Accomplices: The Definition and the Mission of Israel] (Neuchatel: Editions de la Baconniere, 1963), 22pp.
79. Page 4 of a study published on the Internet entitled Le Noachisme et les sectes occultes [Noachism and Occult Sects], Biblio-Koranic studies on the site www.le-carrefour-de-lislame.com. The author is not given. See also: The acts of the International Colloquium held in the year 2000, September 10-11, at Livorno, for the centenary of the death of Elijah Benamozegh, under the patronage of the President of the Italian Republic. The colloquium was presented by Alessandro Guetta.
80. See Elijah Benamozegh, Israel et l'Humanité: Etude sur le probleme de la religion universelle et sa solution (Paris: Albin Michel, 1961). Unfortunately, the edition has been expurgated. A recently created site on Benamozegh and his work, http://www.benamozegh.info/ Benamozegh.html gives free access to the original text of Israel et l'Humanité, re-edited in 1914 (714pp.). The preface by Hyacinthe Loyson is most enlightening.
Translator's note: Israel and Humanity is available in English in more than one edition: (New York: Mahwa, 1995), translated from the French 1961-1977 abridged edition, translated and with an introduction by Mazwell Luria, and including an appendix on "Kabbalah in Elijah Benamozegh's Thought." The above site is in English and in French, but the facsimile of the French 1914 edition is only available in French; all other language versions only contain about two-fifths of the original. See also www.hebraisme.com.
82. For many Jewish authors, St. Paul is the great traitor who rejected the Judaizers to "invent" Christianity, scornfully called "Paulinism." See Shmuel Trigano, L'E(XC)LU, entre juifs et chretiens [Christians and Jews: Elect or Excluded?] (Paris: Denoel, 2003), ch. 4, §2: "Le paulinisme, obstacle au dialogue judeo-chretien" [Paulinism: An Obstacle to Judeo-Christian Dialogue]" (p. 157).
83. Noachism does not seem to be reserved to "the Christian sphere." The Moslems examine with interest this mutation of the Catholic religion. We can read a study of it (27pp.) that they edited for the internet, entitled Le Noachisme et les sectes occultes, see note 78.
84. "Notwithstanding, there is no steering away from the direction we are now following [in Judeo-Christian dialogue]. This is part of the movement through which humankind is being united, even at the cost of confrontations." Lustiger, "Jews and Christians, Tomorrow," Nouvelle Revue Theologique, op. cit., p. 542.
86. Hans Kung could also be named. See his extremely important book, Judaisme (Paris: Seuil, 1995), 952pp. [In English, Judaism: Between Yesterday and Tomorrow (New York: Continuum Publishing, 1995); Teilhard de Chardin as well. See also the work of Fr. Julio Meinvielle, De la Cabale au progressisme [From Cabalism to Progressivism] (French translation from 1998). (Note of the author.)